Any structure made for whatsoever purpose with any material, used for human habitation or not which included foundation, plinth, walls, floor, roofs, chimney, plumbing, and building services, Verandah, Balcony, and cornice, etc. is called a building.
Classification of buildings as per NBC
Classification of buildings as per NBC is done on the basis of Occupancy.
- Mercantile (both retail and wholesale stores)
- Industrial (low, moderate, and high fire hazards)
1. Residential Buildings
Any building in which sleeping accommodation is provided for normal residential purposes with or without cooking/dining. These are further classified as:
(i) Lodging and rooming houses
These are buildings in which separate sleeping accommodation with or without a dining facility but without a cooking facility is provided. For instance, Inns, Clubs, Motels, and Guesthouses.
(ii) One or two-family private dwelling
A private dwelling which is occupied by members of one or two-family. Maximum sleeping accommodation is provided for 20 persons.
Any building in which group sleeping accommodation is provided with or without dining facilities. e.g. School and College Dormitories, Hostels, and Military Barracks.
(iv) Apartment Houses
Buildings in which living quarters are provided for three or more families having independent cooking facilities and living independently of each other. e.g. apartments, Mansions, and Chowls.
Buildings in which sleeping accommodation is provided with or without dining facilities for up to four-star categories (hotels).
(vi) Starred Hotels
Hotels of five stars or above categories.
2. Educational Building
Any building used for school, college, and other training institutions having a minimum of 20 students.
(i) Schools up to Senior Secondary level
Minimum students should be 20.
(ii) All others/training institute
Minimum students should be 100.
3. Institutional Buildings
Buildings that are used for medical or other treatment, care of persons suffering from physical and mental illness, care of infants, for inmates etc are called institutional buildings.
(i) Hospital and Sanatoria
Any building which is used for the treatment of patients e.g. hospitals, sanatoria, infirmaries, and nursing homes.
(ii) Custodial Institutions
Any building used for custody and care of a person for instance children, old age homes, orphanages, etc.
(iii) Penal and mental institutions
Any building which is used for housing persons whose liberty is restricted e.g. jails, prisons, mental hospitals, etc.
4. Assembly Buildings
Any building in which a minimum of 50 persons gathers for recreational, amusement, social, religious, patriotic purposes e.g. theatres, assembly halls, exhibition halls, museums, restaurants, places of worship, etc. These are classified into 7 types:
- (i) The building having theatrical or motion pictures or any other stage having fixed seats for over 1000 persons.
- (ii) The building having theatrical or motion pictures or any other stage having fixed seats upto 1000 persons.
- (iii) Buildings without a permanent stage having a accomodation for 300 or more persons but no permanet seating arragements.
- (iv) Buildings without a permanent stage having a accomodation for less than 300 persons but no permanet seating arragements.
- (v) All other structures including temporary structures desinged for assembly of peoples.
- (vi) Builigns having mixed occupancies of assembly and mercantile
- (vii) Undergroudn and elevated mass rapid transit system
5 . Business Buildings
Any buildings used for the transaction of business, professional establishments, service facilities, etc. are termed as business buildings. These are further divided into 5 types
- (i) Offices, banks, professional establishments etc.
- (ii) Laboratories, clinics, research establishments and libraries etc.
- (iii) IT parks, call centres etc.
- (iv) Telephone exchange
- (v) Broadcasting stations, TV stations and air traffic control towers.
6. Mercantile Buildings
Any building which is used as a shop, store, market, etc. is known as mercantile buildings. These are further classified as:
- (i) Shops, stores, departmental stores, markets (covered area up to 500 m2).
- (ii) Shops, stores, departmental stores, markets (covered area more than 500 m2).
- (iii) Underground shopping centres, storage and service facilities
7. Industrial Buildings
Any building in which products or materials are fabricated, assembled, manufactured, or processed. For instance assembly plants, industrial laboratories, power plants, pumping stations, etc.
(i) Buildings for low hazard industry
Buildings in which those things are manufactured that have low combustibility.
(ii) Buildings for moderate hazard industry
Buildings in which those things are manufactured which will burn with moderate rapidity.
(iii) Buildings for high hazard industry
Buildings in which those things are manufactured which will burn with extreme rapidity and results in hazardous situations.
8. Storage Buildings
Any building which is used for storage of goods, ware or merchandise, vehicles or animals. e.g. warehouse, cold storage, garages, stables, etc.
9. Hazardous Buildings
Buildings which is used for storage, handling, manufacture, or processing of highly combustible or explosive material. For instance manufacture of explosives and fireworks, storage of highly flammable liquids, storage of LPG, rocket propellants, etc.